Difference between revisions of "TeaScript Syntax"
|Line 293:||Line 293:|
<code>Functions</code> are powerful tools that allow you to simplify and expand the flexibility of your scripts. To access a <code>function</code>, you write the function name and in parenthesis write the parameters separated by commas. You can put <code>functions</code> inside an <code>expression</code> just as it were a regular number or string.<syntaxhighlight>
<code>Functions</code> are powerful tools that allow you to simplify and expand the flexibility of your scripts. To access a <code>function</code>, you write the function name and in parenthesis write the parameters separated by commas. You can put <code>functions</code> inside an <code>expression</code> just as it were a regular number or string
myFunc(param1, param2, ..., paramN)
myFunc(param1, param2, ..., paramN)
</syntaxhighlight><syntaxhighlight lang="vb" line="1">
</syntaxhighlight><syntaxhighlight lang="vb" line="1">
Latest revision as of 20:19, 23 December 2019
- 1 Data Types and Variables
- 2 Expressions
- 3 Control Flow
- 4 Loops
- 5 Scripts
- 6 Oddities and Quirks
Data Types and Variables
User variables can be access in the variable menu or by pressing ctrl+i. All of these variables must be created using this interface.
Doubles & Strings
By clicking the
Add button in the variable interface you create a user variable.
You may also select if the variable is a local or global
user variable. Local
user variables can only exist in a single level and the value is reset every time the level begins. Global variables save the value per level and remembers the value even after quitting the game.
Variable Naming Standard
- Names are not case sensitive.
- Names must not contain spaces.
- Names must be made using a combination of letters and numbers only.
- Names must start with a letter
User variables work in an unusual way compared to other scripting languages. A
user variable has two sides, a
double and a
string. There are different methods to access each side
' By creating a variable called "myVar" in the interface you can... ' === Access doubles 'Local val(myVar) or v(myVar) 'Global gval(myVar) or gv(myVar) 'Local Concatenation in TXTCreate and Event Messages &val(myVar) 'Global Concatenation in TXTCreate and Event Messages &gval(myVar) ' === Access strings 'Local str(myVar) 'Global gstr(myVar) 'Local Concatenation in TXTCreate and Event Messages $val(myVar) 'Global Concatenation in TXTCreate and Event Messages $gvl(myVar)
1 ' === Example 2 3 v(myVar) = 5 4 str(myVar) = "Hello" 5 6 v(myVar) = v(myVar) + 2 7 str(myVar) = str(myVar) & " World" 8 9 ' v(myVar) now has the value of 7 10 ' str(myVar) now has the value of "Hello World" 11 ' Notice how a user variable simultaneously hold a double and a string at the same time. The double side does not interfere with the string side and vice versa.
Note how a
user variable simultaneously can hold a
double and a
Add while holding shift in the variable interface you create a
user array. Currently,
user arrays can only contain
User arrays must first be initialized using the redim
function before usage.
' By creating an array called "myArr" in the interface you can... ' Initialize the array using redim ' Read documentation on redim for more information call redim(0, myArr, ARRAY_LENGHT) ' Access value of an array at an index array(myArr(index))
' === Example call redim(0, myArr, 3) array(myArr(1)) = 5 array(myArr(2)) = 7 array(myArr(3)) = array(myArr(1)) + array(myArr(2)) ' The array now has the following values of [5, 7, 12]
Dim variables are a different way of creating and interacting with variables compared to user variables. A
dim variable can only have a single type of data that must be defined on creation. Variable naming standards are the same as
user variables, except you may not use the same name of other existing
keywords. If a
dim variable is initialized without a value, it defaults to 0 or "" depending on the type.
' You can initialize a variable dim varName as type ' You can initialize a variable with a defined value dim varName as type = value 'Once initialized you just write the variable name to access it varName
1 ' === Example 2 dim myInt as integer 3 dim myLng as long 4 dim myDbl as double = 5 5 dim myStr as string = "Hello" 6 7 myInt = myDbl*2 8 myLng = myDbl*5 9 myStr = myStr & " World" 10 11 'myInt has the value of 10 12 'myLng has the value of 25 13 'myDbl has the value of 5 14 'myStr has the value of "Hello World"
An expression is a line of code that evaluates to an answer. Something as simple as
1 + 1 is an expression. Teascript offers different tools to create diverse expressions that suit what you specifically need.
12 + 2 + 3 'returns 17
12 - 2 - 3 'returns 7
12*2*5 'returns 120
'Note that division by 0 will crash SMBX 12/2/5 'returns 1.2
|\||Division with no remainder|
'Note that division by 0 will crash SMBX 12\2\5 'returns 1
'Note that 0^0 will return 1 12^2 'returns 144
'Note that modulating by 0 will crash SMBX 12 mod 5 'returns 2
"ABC" & ";" & "123" 'returns "ABC;123"
12*(2 + 5) 'returns 84
Note that all
comparative operators require both sides use the same data type. You can compare numbers with other numbers and strings with other strings, but you cannot compare numbers with strings.
|=||Equal||Numbers Returns -1 if both sides are equal, otherwise 0|
|Strings Returns -1 if both sides are equal, otherwise 0|
|<>||Not equal||Numbers Returns -1 if both sides are not equal, otherwise 0|
|Strings Returns -1 if both sides are not equal, otherwise 0|
|>||Grater than||Numbers Returns -1 if the value on the left is larger, otherwise 0|
|Strings Unknown pattern|
|<||Less than||Numbers Returns -1 if the value on the left is smaller, otherwise 0|
|Strings Unknown pattern|
|>=||Greater than or equal||Numbers Returns -1 if the value on the left is larger or equal, otherwise 0|
|Strings Unknown pattern|
|<=||Less than or equal||Numbers Returns -1 if the value on the left is smaller or equal, otherwise 0|
|Strings Unknown pattern|
|like||Like||Numbers Not compatible, crashes the game|
Logical operators only work on numbers. They are commonly used with -1 and 0 to represent true and false respectively. Other numbers can be used but it may yield different patterns.
|P||Q||not P||P and Q||P or Q||P xor Q||P eqv Q||P imp Q|
These special values behave like numbers.
|rnd||A random number between 0 and 1. The value changes every time the variable is accessed.|
Functions are powerful tools that allow you to simplify and expand the flexibility of your scripts. To access a
function, you write the function name and in parenthesis write the parameters separated by commas. You can put
functions inside an
expression just as it were a regular number or string.
For a list of
custom functions created by the community check here.
myFunc(param1, param2, ..., paramN)
1 ' === Example 2 dim x as integer = -5 3 dim y as integer 4 y = abs(x) + 1 5 ' x returns -5; y returns 6 6 ' Note how the abs() function is used
These are the the mathematical
functions provided in TeaScript.
Parameters can be numbers, strings, and arrays.
|Name and Parameters||Return Type||Description and Example|
|abs(x)||Number||Returns the absolute value of a number
abs(-3) 'returns 3
|exp(x)||Number||Returns the number to the power of the e constant
exp(5) 'returns e^5
|log(x)||Number||Returns the log of the number with a base of e
log(e) 'returns 1
|sgn(x)||Number||Returns the sign of the number (1, -1, or 0)
sgn(10) 'returns 1 sgn(0) 'returns 0 sgn(-10) 'returns -1
|int(x)||Number||Returns the number rounded up. Similar to the common ceiling function
int(2.1) 'returns 3
|fix(x)||Number||Returns the number rounded down. Similar to the common floor function
fix(2.9) 'returns 2
|sqr(x)||Number||Returns the square root of a number
sqr(9) 'returns 3
|sin(x)||Number||Returns the sine of the number. Uses radians
sin(pi) 'returns 0
|cos(x)||Number||Returns the cosine of the number. Uses radians
cos(pi) 'returns 1
|tan(x)||Number||Returns the tangent of the number Uses radians
tan(pi/4) 'returns 1
|atn(x)||Number||Returns the inverse tangent of the number. Uses radians
atn(1) 'returns pi/4
|getangle(x, y)||Number||Returns the angle (from 0 to 1) formed between the triangle. Similar to the common atan2 function.
getangle(1, 0) 'returns 0 getangle(1, 1) 'returns .125 getangle(0, 1) 'returns .25 getangle(-1, 0) 'returns 0.5 getangle(0, -1) 'returns 0.75
|rgba(red, green, blue, alpha)||Number||Returns an SMBX color value. Parameters must be between 0 and 255
rgba(255, 255, 255, 255) 'returns -1
|round(x, decimal place)||Number||Returns the number rounded|
round(1.3456, 2) 'returns 1.35
|len(txt)||Number||Returns the length of the text
len("ABC") 'returns 3
|left(txt, len)||String||Returns the text cropped from the string inputted. The crop begins from the start and ends with the length specified.|
left("Hello", 2) ' Returns "He"
|right(txt, len)||String||Returns the text cropped from the string inputted. The crop ends from the end and begins with the length specified.|
right("Hello", 3) ' Returns "llo"
|mid(txt, start, len)||String||Returns the text cropped at the specified start and has the specified length provided. |
mid("Hello", 2, 3) ' Returns "ell"
|asc(char)||Number||Returns the ANSI code. It will use the first character if more than one is passed|
asc("A") ' Returns 65
|chr(code)||String||Returns a string using the ANSI code. Accepts 0-255|
chr(65) ' Returns "A"
|ascw(char)||Number||Returns the unicode code. It will use the first character if more than one is passed|
ascw("A") ' Returns 65
|chrw(code)||String||Returns a string using the unicode code. Accepts 0-65535|
chrw(65) ' Returns "A"
|cstr(num)||String||Converts the number to a string|
cstr(1) ' Returns "1"
|cdbl(txt)||Number||Converts the string into a number|
cdbl("1") ' Returns 1
|instr(start, txt, search)||Number||To return the point of the first appearance of a given string in another string.
search The string to be searched
instr(1, "abcde", "b") ' Returns 2
|ubound(array)||Number||Returns the length of the array|
call redim(0, myArr, 3) ubound(myArr) ' Returns 3
script is run in TeaScript it will start reading the
script from top to bottom, left to right. It will read and execute the code in that order. the following is a list of ways to customize and manipulate what code gets executed in your
declaration is when you set a value to a variable. This applies to
dim variables, and other values.
' Basic form of a declaration ' The variable is written in the left ' The value you want set is written in the right variable = value
1 ' === Examples 2 v(myVar) = 5 3 dim x as integer 4 dim y as double = 10 5 sysval(score) = 0 6 x = v(myVar) + 10 7 NPC(1).xsp = 0
Conditions represent true and false. In Teascript, -1 and 0 represents true and false. Any number that is not 0 may also represent true, but use -1 and 0 for consistency reasons.
1 ' === Examples 2 3 -1 ' Represents True 4 0 ' Represents False 5 5 ' Represents True (because non-zero numbers represent true) 6 7 dim w as integer = -1 8 dim x as integer = 5 9 dim y as integer = 5 10 dim z as integer = 0 11 12 w ' Represents True (because w has the value of -1) 13 x ' Represents True (because x has a value of a non-zero number) 14 y ' Represents True (because y has a value of a non-zero number) 15 z ' Represents False (because z has a value of 0) 16 17 z - 1 ' Represent True (because 0 - 1 = -1) 18 w + 1 ' Represent False (because -1 + 1 = 0) 19 20 ' Using logical operators 21 not w ' Represent False 22 not (y and z) ' Represents True 23 w or z ' Represents True
if statement is a basic but useful statement. It has one parameter being a
' Basic if statement if conditon then statement end if ' Shortcut if statement if condition then statement ' If statement using one elseif and an else statement if conditon then statement elseif condition then statement ... ' You can have as many elseif as you want else statement end if
When TeaScript reads an
if statement it will check each
condition from top to bottom until it reaches a
condition that is true. When it reaches a
condition that is true, it will execute the
statements inside and continue the code after the entire
if statement. This means that
conditions written on the top will have priority over those
conditions in the bottom.
else is special since it does not require any
else must be written in the bottom after all other
elseif statements (if there are any). The code inside the
else will only run if every other
condition in the
elseif statements evaluated to false.
1 ' === Example 2 dim x as integer = 0 3 dim y as integer = -1 4 dim z as integer = -1 5 6 ' Since (x and y) evaluates to 0, this statement is not run. 7 if x and y then z = 0 8 9 ' Since (x and z) evaluates to 0, this statement is not run. 10 if x and z then 11 y = 0 12 13 ' Since (y) evaluates to -1, this statement is run. 14 elseif y then 15 x = -1 16 17 ' Since the previous elseif has priority and only one statement can be run, this statement is not run 18 else 19 z = -1 20 end if
Select Case Statements
Select Case lets you easily organize the control flow based on a value. It has one parameter being a value.
select case value case -1 statement ' Will run if value is exactly -1 case 0 to 1 statement ' Will run if value is between (inclusive) 0 and 1 case is < -1 statement ' Will run if value is less than negative one case 2, 3, 4 statement ' Will run if value is exactly 2, 3 or 4 case "example" statement ' Will run if value is exactly "example". case else statement ' Will run if value does not match any of the other conditions end select
Select case at its core is similar to various
if statements and behaves similarly to the common "switch" statement in other languages. It will read the value that is passed and executes the first code in which the value matches. It will read the cases from top to bottom giving priority to cases at the top.
to keyword can be used when checking for a case.
- Numbers Will be true if the value is between (inclusive) the two numbers provided.
- Strings Unknown pattern
is keyword can be used to make comparisons to the value. It can be used with the
<, >, <=, or
>= logical operators.
You can use commas to check for multiple cases at once. The commas behave similarly to an
or logical operator. The case will go through if it matches with any of the cases.
With statements are useful to read or write on multiple properties of an object. An object can be for example an NPC, Block, or BGO. Check the classes section for more information on SMBX Objects. You can acess all of the properties by typing a
. followed by the property name.
with object .property_name end with
' === Example with NPC(1) .x = 12345 .y = 54321 .forecolor = rgba(10, 60, 60, 255) v(myVar) = .ysp end with ' This is equivalent to: NPC(1).x = 12345 NPC(1).y = 54321 NPC(1).forecolor = rgba(10, 60, 60, 255) v(myVar) = NPC(1).ysp
goto will force the script to jump to a specific line to a specific label. The label name must be followed by
Goto does not work inside
Example: goto Example
gosub will force the script to jump to a specific line to a specific label. Teascript will remember where the jump happened and can be returned by using
return.The label name must be followed by
Gosub does not work inside
Example: gosub Example return ' When it reaches this line, it will return back to the first line
' === Example gosub Example call showMsg("b") Example: call showMsg("a") return ' Take note of the order the messages are shown
A loop allows you to run a piece of code multiple times. Teascript is very flexible in the type of loops you can create.
It is important to note that you should avoid an infinite loop. Creating an infinite loop will freeze the game. Make sure to either have a
sleep function (if the script was called by an event) or an
pure loop is a very simple and basic form of a loop. It will run indefinitely.
'Pure loop: do statement loop
1 ' === Example 2 ' Calling this script once will run the code every tick 3 do 4 statement 5 call sleep(1) 6 loop
while loop will continue the loop while the
true. You can set up a
while loop in 2 different ways. The difference is by when the loop checks its condition. If you place the
while at the bottom, you guarantee then code will be run at least once.
do while condition statement loop do statement loop while condition
1 ' === Example 2 dim x as integer 3 4 x = 0 5 do while x < 5 6 x = x + 1 7 loop 8 9 x = 0 10 do 11 x = x + 1 12 loop while x < 5 13 14 ' Both loops ran 5 times
until loop will continue the loop until the
true. You can set up an
until loop in 2 different ways. The difference is by when the loop checks its condition. If you place the
until at the bottom, you guarantee then code will be run at least once.
do until condition statement loop do statement loop until condition
1 ' === Example 2 dim x as integer 3 4 x = 0 5 do until x = 5 6 x = x + 1 7 loop 8 9 x = 0 10 do 11 x = x + 1 12 loop until x = 5 13 14 ' Both loops ran 5 times
for loop will run for a set amount of times. You declare a variable then will count the current iteration it is on. A
for loop has 3 parameters and they are:
final value, and
for loop will continue to loop as long as your counter is less or equal to the
ending value. The
for loop will also stop if your counter is less than your
initial value. For every iteration, your counter will increase by the
for i = (initial value) to (ending value) step (step value) statement next 'step value is optional and defaults to 1 when omitted for i = (initial value) to (ending value) statement next
1 ' === Example 2 dim i as integer 3 for i = 0 to 8 step 2 4 call showMsg(i) 5 next 6 7 ' The messages displayed are: 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8
An exit statement will terminate a loop of a script prematurely.
'This works inside a pure, while, or until loop exit do 'This works inside a for loop exit for 'This will force the game to stop immediately executing the script exit script
Teascript allows you to create
custom script function inside your scripts. This allows you to simplify your code and build tools to expand your script in a more organized manner. There are two types of
custom scripts that both work very similarly.
When setting up a
custom function or
custom procedure, all
parameters names must follow variable naming standards with one exception. Script names must not contain numbers anywhere.
custom function allows you to create your own custom functions that behave similarly to the
built-in functions shown above. You can add your own
custom functions to simplify code or add your very own mathematical functions. You can have as many
parameters as you want. You must define the type of data and the return type as shown below. If no
return is found, then by default it will return 0 or "" depending on the return type. A
custom function must be defined at the bottom of the script.
1 ' type must be double or string 2 script functionName(param1 as type, param2 as type, ..., return type) 3 ' to access a parameter, just type the name 4 return value 5 end script
' === Example dim x as integer = 5 dim y as integer = 10 dim z as integer z = max(5, 10) ' z returns 10 ' This script returns the larger parameter script max(a as double, b as double, return double) if a > b then return a return b end script
custom procedure are similar to
custom functions except they do not have a return value. Use custom procedures to create instructions that you want to repeat together. You can have as many
parameters as you want. You must define the type of data as shown below. A
custom procedure must be defined at the bottom of the script.
' type must be double or string script procedureName(param1 as type, param2 as type, ...) end script
1 ' === Example 2 ' This disables both types of jumps 3 call setJumps(-1) 4 5 ' This enables both types of jumps 6 call setJumps(0) 7 8 script setJumps(x as double) 9 sysval(disablejump) = x 10 sysval(disablespinjump) = x 11 end script
Oddities and Quirks
The following is a list of oddities that you may experience when using TeaScript
Dim Variables in If Statements
If you initialize a dim variable inside an if statement, it will have a buggy effect. This is a bug in Teascript's side.
' This is a bug if -1 = -1 then dim i as double = 1 call sysshowmsg(i,0,0) dim j as double = i - 2 dim k as double = j + i call sysshowmsg(i,0,0) call sysshowmsg(j,0,0) call sysshowmsg(k,0,0) end if
custom function you can ignore the return value. This serves no practical purposes.
' Why would you ever do this? call max(5, 10) script max(a as double, b as double, return double) if a > b then return a return b end script
Negatives to a Non-Integer Power
sqr(x) is equivalent to
(-1)^(0.5) results in a complex number with a imaginary component. Teascript does not offer complex numbers in its data types.
dim x as integer = -1 dim y as integer y = (-1)^(0.5) ' This returns an error when run. y = x^(0.5) ' This does not error but will evaluate to 0
Writing Double Quotation Marks
Since double quotation marks are reserved for defining string, you must use chr or chrW to write a double quotation mark inside a string.
str(myVar1) = chrW(34) '34 is the ID of the double quotation marks. (ID 34 works too in chr() too) 'You can define a variable as a quotation mark or call the quotation mark directly, both work the same str(myVar2) = "These are some "&str(myVar1)&"special"&chrW(34)&" marks" 'str(myVar2) is "These are some "special" marks"
> THESE PROBLEMS ARE FIXED in 1.4.5 <
Writing Decimal Numbers
When writing decimal number, you must include a number before the decimal point.
'Wrong v(myVar) = .1 'Correct v(myVar) = 0.1
Writing negative numbers
When writing a negative number, make sure there are no other symbols beforehand (except parenthesis).
'Wrong (Teascript errors due to seeing * and - next to each other) v(myVar) = 5*-4 'Correct v(myVar) = 5*(-4) v(myVar) = -4*5